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The World Factbook 2002

  Field Listing - Government type

This entry gives the basic form of government (e.g., republic, constitutional monarchy, federal republic, parliamentary democracy, military dictatorship).
Government type
Afghanistan transitional
Albania emerging democracy
Algeria republic
American Samoa NA
Andorra parliamentary democracy (since March 1993) that retains as its heads of state a coprincipality; the two princes are the president of France and bishop of Seo de Urgel, Spain, who are represented locally by coprinces' representatives
Angola republic, nominally a multiparty democracy with a strong presidential system
Anguilla NA
Antarctica Antarctic Treaty Summary - the Antarctic Treaty, signed on 1 December 1959 and entered into force on 23 June 1961, establishes the legal framework for the management of Antarctica. The 24th Antarctic Treaty Consultative Meeting was held in Russia in July 2001. At the end of 2001, there were 45 treaty member nations: 27 consultative and 18 non-consultative. Consultative (voting) members include the seven nations that claim portions of Antarctica as national territory (some claims overlap) and 20 nonclaimant nations. The US and Russia have reserved the right to make claims. The US does not recognize the claims of others. Antarctica is administered through meetings of the consultative member nations. Decisions from these meetings are carried out by these member nations (within their areas) in accordance with their own national laws. The year in parentheses indicates when an acceding nation was voted to full consultative (voting) status, while no date indicates the country was an original 1959 treaty signatory. Claimant nations are - Argentina, Australia, Chile, France, New Zealand, Norway, and the UK. Nonclaimant consultative nations are - Belgium, Brazil (1983), Bulgaria (1998) China (1985), Ecuador (1990), Finland (1989), Germany (1981), India (1983), Italy (1987), Japan, South Korea (1989), Netherlands (1990), Peru (1989), Poland (1977), Russia, South Africa, Spain (1988), Sweden (1988), Uruguay (1985), and the US. Non-consultative (nonvoting) members, with year of accession in parentheses, are - Austria (1987), Canada (1988), Colombia (1989), Cuba (1984), Czech Republic (1993), Denmark (1965), Estonia (2001), Greece (1987), Guatemala (1991), Hungary (1984), North Korea (1987), Papua New Guinea (1981), Romania (1971), Slovakia (1993), Switzerland (1990), Turkey (1995), Ukraine (1992), and Venezuela (1999). Article 1 - area to be used for peaceful purposes only; military activity, such as weapons testing, is prohibited, but military personnel and equipment may be used for scientific research or any other peaceful purpose; Article 2 - freedom of scientific investigation and cooperation shall continue; Article 3 - free exchange of information and personnel, cooperation with the UN and other international agencies; Article 4 - does not recognize, dispute, or establish territorial claims and no new claims shall be asserted while the treaty is in force; Article 5 - prohibits nuclear explosions or disposal of radioactive wastes; Article 6 - includes under the treaty all land and ice shelves south of 60 degrees 00 minutes south and reserves high seas rights; Article 7 - treaty-state observers have free access, including aerial observation, to any area and may inspect all stations, installations, and equipment; advance notice of all expeditions and of the introduction of military personnel must be given; Article 8 - allows for jurisdiction over observers and scientists by their own states; Article 9 - frequent consultative meetings take place among member nations; Article 10 - treaty states will discourage activities by any country in Antarctica that are contrary to the treaty; Article 11 - disputes to be settled peacefully by the parties concerned or, ultimately, by the ICJ; Articles 12, 13, 14 - deal with upholding, interpreting, and amending the treaty among involved nations. Other agreements - some 200 recommendations adopted at treaty consultative meetings and ratified by governments include - Agreed Measures for Fauna and Flora (1964) which were later incorporated into the Environmental Protocol; Convention for the Conservation of Antarctic Seals (1972); Convention on the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources (1980); a mineral resources agreement was signed in 1988 but remains unratified; the Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty was signed 4 October 1991 and entered into force 14 January 1998; this agreement provides for the protection of the Antarctic environment through five specific annexes: 1) marine pollution, 2) fauna and flora, 3) environmental impact assessments, 4) waste management, and 5) protected area management; it prohibits all activities relating to mineral resources except scientific research.
Antigua and Barbuda constitutional monarchy with UK-style parliament
Argentina republic
Armenia republic
Aruba parliamentary democracy
Australia democratic, federal-state system recognizing the British monarch as sovereign
Austria federal republic
Azerbaijan republic
Bahamas, The constitutional parliamentary democracy
Bahrain constitutional hereditary monarchy
Bangladesh parliamentary democracy
Barbados parliamentary democracy; independent sovereign state within the Commonwealth
Belarus republic
Belgium federal parliamentary democracy under a constitutional monarch
Belize parliamentary democracy
Benin republic under multiparty democratic rule; dropped Marxism-Leninism December 1989; democratic reforms adopted February 1990; transition to multiparty system completed 4 April 1991
Bermuda parliamentary British overseas territory with internal self-government
Bhutan monarchy; special treaty relationship with India
Bolivia republic
Bosnia and Herzegovina emerging federal democratic republic
Botswana parliamentary republic
Brazil federative republic
British Virgin Islands NA
Brunei constitutional sultanate
Bulgaria parliamentary democracy
Burkina Faso parliamentary republic
Burma military regime
Burundi republic
Cambodia multiparty democracy under a constitutional monarchy established in September 1993
Cameroon unitary republic; multiparty presidential regime (opposition parties legalized in 1990)
note: preponderance of power remains with the president
Canada confederation with parliamentary democracy
Cape Verde republic
Cayman Islands British crown colony
Central African Republic republic
Chad republic
Chile republic
China Communist state
Christmas Island NA
Cocos (Keeling) Islands NA
Colombia republic; executive branch dominates government structure
Comoros independent republic
Congo, Democratic Republic of the dictatorship; presumably undergoing a transition to representative government
Congo, Republic of the republic
Cook Islands self-governing parliamentary democracy
Costa Rica democratic republic
Cote d'Ivoire republic; multiparty presidential regime established 1960
Croatia presidential/parliamentary democracy
Cuba Communist state
Cyprus republic
note: a disaggregation of the two ethnic communities inhabiting the island began following the outbreak of communal strife in 1963; this separation was further solidified after the Turkish intervention in July 1974 after a Greek junta-based coup attempt gave the Turkish Cypriots de facto control in the north; Greek Cypriots control the only internationally recognized government; on 15 November 1983 Turkish Cypriot "President" Rauf DENKTASH declared independence and the formation of a "Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus" (TRNC), recognized only by Turkey; both sides publicly support a settlement based on a federation (Greek Cypriot position) or confederation (Turkish Cypriot position)
Czech Republic parliamentary democracy
Denmark constitutional monarchy
Djibouti republic
Dominica parliamentary democracy; republic within the Commonwealth
Dominican Republic representative democracy
East Timor republic
Ecuador republic
Egypt republic
El Salvador republic
Equatorial Guinea republic
Eritrea transitional government
note: following a successful referendum on independence for the Autonomous Region of Eritrea on 23-25 April 1993, a National Assembly, composed entirely of the People's Front for Democracy and Justice or PFDJ, was established as a transitional legislature; a Constitutional Commission was also established to draft a constitution; Afworki ISAIAS was elected president by the transitional legislature; the constitution, ratified in May 1997, did not enter into effect, pending parliamentary and presidential elections; parliamentary elections had been scheduled to take place in December 2001, but were postponed; currently the sole legal party is the People's Front for Democracy and Justice (PFDJ), though a draft political parties law is under consideration
Estonia parliamentary republic
Ethiopia federal republic
Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas) NA
Faroe Islands NA
Fiji republic
note: military coup leader Maj. Gen. Sitiveni RABUKA formally declared Fiji a republic on 6 October 1987
Finland republic
France republic
French Guiana NA
French Polynesia NA
Gabon republic; multiparty presidential regime (opposition parties legalized in 1990)
Gambia, The republic under multiparty democratic rule
Georgia republic
Germany federal republic
Ghana constitutional democracy
Gibraltar NA
Greece parliamentary republic; monarchy rejected by referendum 8 December 1974
Greenland parliamentary democracy within a constitutional monarchy
Grenada constitutional monarchy with Westminster-style parliament
Guadeloupe NA
Guam NA
Guatemala constitutional democratic republic
Guernsey NA
Guinea republic
Guinea-Bissau republic, multiparty since mid-1991
Guyana republic within the Commonwealth
Haiti elected government
Holy See (Vatican City) ecclesiastical
Honduras democratic constitutional republic
Hong Kong NA
Hungary parliamentary democracy
Iceland constitutional republic
India federal republic
Indonesia republic
Iran theocratic republic
Iraq republic
Ireland republic
Israel parliamentary democracy
Italy republic
Jamaica constitutional parliamentary democracy
Japan constitutional monarchy with a parliamentary government
Jersey NA
Jordan constitutional monarchy
Kazakhstan republic
Kenya republic
Kiribati republic
Korea, North authoritarian socialist; one-man dictatorship
Korea, South republic
Kuwait nominal constitutional monarchy
Kyrgyzstan republic
Laos Communist state
Latvia parliamentary democracy
Lebanon republic
Lesotho parliamentary constitutional monarchy
Liberia republic
Libya Jamahiriya (a state of the masses) in theory, governed by the populace through local councils; in fact, a military dictatorship
Liechtenstein hereditary constitutional monarchy
Lithuania parliamentary democracy
Luxembourg constitutional monarchy
Macau NA
Macedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic of emerging democracy
Madagascar republic
Malawi multiparty democracy
Malaysia constitutional monarchy
note: Malaya (what is now Peninsular Malaysia) formed 31 August 1957; Federation of Malaysia (Malaya, Sabah, Sarawak, and Singapore) formed 9 July 1963 (Singapore left the federation on 9 August 1965); nominally headed by the paramount ruler and a bicameral Parliament consisting of a nonelected upper house and an elected lower house; Peninsular Malaysian states - hereditary rulers in all but Melaka, Penang, Sabah, and Sarawak, where governors are appointed by the Malaysian Government; powers of state governments are limited by the federal constitution; under terms of the federation, Sabah and Sarawak retain certain constitutional prerogatives (e.g., the right to maintain their own immigration controls); Sabah - holds 20 seats in House of Representatives, with foreign affairs, defense, internal security, and other powers delegated to federal government; Sarawak - holds 28 seats in House of Representatives, with foreign affairs, defense, internal security, and other powers delegated to federal government
Maldives republic
Mali republic
Malta republic
Man, Isle of parliamentary democracy
Marshall Islands constitutional government in free association with the US; the Compact of Free Association entered into force 21 October 1986
Martinique NA
Mauritania republic
Mauritius parliamentary democracy
Mayotte NA
Mexico federal republic
Micronesia, Federated States of constitutional government in free association with the US; the Compact of Free Association entered into force 3 November 1986 and is due for renegotiation
Moldova republic
Monaco constitutional monarchy
Mongolia parliamentary
Montserrat NA
Morocco constitutional monarchy
Mozambique republic
Namibia republic
Nauru republic
Nepal parliamentary democracy and constitutional monarchy
Netherlands constitutional monarchy
Netherlands Antilles parliamentary
New Caledonia NA
New Zealand parliamentary democracy
Nicaragua republic
Niger republic
Nigeria republic transitioning from military to civilian rule
Niue self-governing parliamentary democracy
Norfolk Island NA
Northern Mariana Islands commonwealth; self-governing with locally elected governor, lieutenant governor, and legislature
Norway constitutional monarchy
Oman monarchy
Pakistan federal republic
Palau constitutional government in free association with the US; the Compact of Free Association entered into force 1 October 1994
Panama constitutional democracy
Papua New Guinea constitutional monarchy with parliamentary democracy
Paraguay constitutional republic
Peru constitutional republic
Philippines republic
Pitcairn Islands NA
Poland republic
Portugal parliamentary democracy
Puerto Rico commonwealth
Qatar traditional monarchy
Reunion NA
Romania republic
Russia federation
Rwanda republic; presidential, multiparty system
Saint Helena NA
Saint Kitts and Nevis constitutional monarchy with Westminster-style parliament
Saint Lucia Westminster-style parliamentary democracy
Saint Pierre and Miquelon NA
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines parliamentary democracy; independent sovereign state within the Commonwealth
Samoa constitutional monarchy under native chief
San Marino independent republic
Sao Tome and Principe republic
Saudi Arabia monarchy
Senegal republic under multiparty democratic rule
Seychelles republic
Sierra Leone constitutional democracy
Singapore parliamentary republic
Slovakia parliamentary democracy
Slovenia parliamentary democratic republic
Solomon Islands parliamentary democracy tending toward anarchy
Somalia no permanent national government; transitional, parliamentary national government
South Africa republic
Spain parliamentary monarchy
Sri Lanka republic
Sudan authoritarian regime - ruling military junta took power in 1989; government is run by an alliance of the military and the National Congress Party (NCP), formerly the National Islamic Front (NIF), which espouses an Islamist platform
Suriname constitutional democracy
Svalbard NA
Swaziland monarchy; independent member of Commonwealth
Sweden constitutional monarchy
Switzerland federal republic
Syria republic under military regime since March 1963
Taiwan multiparty democratic regime headed by popularly elected president and unicameral legislature
Tajikistan republic
Tanzania republic
Thailand constitutional monarchy
Togo republic under transition to multiparty democratic rule
Tokelau NA
Tonga hereditary constitutional monarchy
Trinidad and Tobago parliamentary democracy
Tunisia republic
Turkey republican parliamentary democracy
Turkmenistan republic
Turks and Caicos Islands NA
Tuvalu constitutional monarchy with a parliamentary democracy; began debating republic status in 1992
Uganda republic
Ukraine republic
United Arab Emirates federation with specified powers delegated to the UAE federal government and other powers reserved to member emirates
United Kingdom constitutional monarchy
United States federal republic; strong democratic tradition
Uruguay constitutional republic
Uzbekistan republic; authoritarian presidential rule, with little power outside the executive branch
Vanuatu parliamentary republic
Venezuela federal republic
Vietnam Communist state
Virgin Islands NA
Wallis and Futuna NA
Western Sahara legal status of territory and issue of sovereignty unresolved; territory contested by Morocco and Polisario Front (Popular Front for the Liberation of the Saguia el Hamra and Rio de Oro), which in February 1976 formally proclaimed a government-in-exile of the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic (SADR),led by President Mohamed ABDELAZIZ and recognized by 54 nations; territory partitioned between Morocco and Mauritania in April 1976, with Morocco acquiring northern two-thirds; Mauritania, under pressure from Polisario guerrillas, abandoned all claims to its portion in August 1979; Morocco moved to occupy that sector shortly thereafter and has since asserted administrative control; the Polisario's government-in-exile was seated as an OAU member in 1984; guerrilla activities continued sporadically, until a UN-monitored cease-fire was implemented 6 September 1991
Yemen republic
Yugoslavia republic
Zambia republic
Zimbabwe parliamentary democracy

This page was last updated on 1 January 2002

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