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The World Factbook 2002

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  Transnational Issues

In general, information available as of 1 January 2002
was used in the preparation of The World Factbook 2002.

This page was last updated on 1 January 2002

Map of Tajikistan

Legend: Definition Definition Field Listing Field Listing
   Introduction    Tajikistan
Definition Field Listing
Tajikistan has experienced three changes in government and a five-year civil war since it gained independence in 1991 from the USSR. A peace agreement among rival factions was signed in 1997, and implemented in 2000. The central government's less than total control over some areas of the country has forced it to compromise and forge alliances among factions. Open skirmishes in the streets are less of a problem than they were during the war five years ago. Attention by the international community in the wake of the war in Afghanistan may bring increased economic development assistance, which would create jobs and increase stability in the long term. Tajikistan is in the beginning stages of seeking World Trade Organization membership and has been approved to join NATO's Partnership for Peace.
   Geography    Tajikistan
Definition Field Listing
Central Asia, west of China
Geographic coordinates:
Definition Field Listing
39 00 N, 71 00 E
Map references:
Definition Field Listing
Definition Field Listing
total: 143,100 sq km
water: 400 sq km
land: 142,700 sq km
Area - comparative:
Definition Field Listing
slightly smaller than Wisconsin
Land boundaries:
Definition Field Listing
total: 3,651 km
border countries: Afghanistan 1,206 km, China 414 km, Kyrgyzstan 870 km, Uzbekistan 1,161 km
Definition Field Listing
0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims:
Definition Field Listing
none (landlocked)
Definition Field Listing
midlatitude continental, hot summers, mild winters; semiarid to polar in Pamir Mountains
Definition Field Listing
Pamir and Alay Mountains dominate landscape; western Fergana Valley in north, Kofarnihon and Vakhsh Valleys in southwest
Elevation extremes:
Definition Field Listing
lowest point: Syr Darya (Sirdaryo) 300 m
highest point: Qullai Ismoili Somoni 7,495 m
Natural resources:
Definition Field Listing
hydropower, some petroleum, uranium, mercury, brown coal, lead, zinc, antimony, tungsten, silver, gold
Land use:
Definition Field Listing
arable land: 5%
permanent crops: 1%
other: 94% (1998 est.)
Irrigated land:
Definition Field Listing
7,200 sq km (1998 est.)
Natural hazards:
Definition Field Listing
earthquakes and floods
Environment - current issues:
Definition Field Listing
inadequate sanitation facilities; increasing levels of soil salinity; industrial pollution; excessive pesticides; part of the basin of the shrinking Aral Sea suffers from severe overutilization of available water for irrigation and associated pollution
Environment - international agreements:
Definition Field Listing
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Environmental Modification, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - note:
Definition Field Listing
landlocked; mountainous region dominated by the Trans-Alay Range in the north and the Pamirs in the southeast; highest point, Qullai Ismoili Somoni (formerly Communism Peak), was the tallest mountain in the former USSR
   People    Tajikistan
Definition Field Listing
6,719,567 (July 2002 est.)
Age structure:
Definition Field Listing
0-14 years: 40.4% (male 1,370,314; female 1,346,465)
15-64 years: 54.9% (male 1,835,573; female 1,854,677)
65 years and over: 4.7% (male 136,033; female 176,505) (2002 est.)
Population growth rate:
Definition Field Listing
2.12% (2002 est.)
Birth rate:
Definition Field Listing
32.99 births/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Death rate:
Definition Field Listing
8.51 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Net migration rate:
Definition Field Listing
-3.27 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Sex ratio:
Definition Field Listing
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.77 male(s)/female
total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2002 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
Definition Field Listing
114.77 deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
Definition Field Listing
total population: 64.28 years
female: 67.46 years (2002 est.)
male: 61.24 years
Total fertility rate:
Definition Field Listing
4.23 children born/woman (2002 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
Definition Field Listing
less than 0.01% (1999 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
Definition Field Listing
less than 100 (1999 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
Definition Field Listing
less than 100 (1999 est.)
Definition Field Listing
noun: Tajikistani(s)
adjective: Tajikistani
Ethnic groups:
Definition Field Listing
Tajik 64.9%, Uzbek 25%, Russian 3.5% (declining because of emigration), other 6.6%
Definition Field Listing
Sunni Muslim 85%, Shi'a Muslim 5%
Definition Field Listing
Tajik (official), Russian widely used in government and business
Definition Field Listing
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 98%
male: 99%
female: 97% (1989 est.)
   Government    Tajikistan
Country name:
Definition Field Listing
conventional long form: Republic of Tajikistan
conventional short form: Tajikistan
local short form: none
former: Tajik Soviet Socialist Republic
local long form: Jumhurii Tojikiston
Government type:
Definition Field Listing
Definition Field Listing
Administrative divisions:
Definition Field Listing
2 provinces (viloyatho, singular - viloyat) and 1 autonomous province* (viloyati mukhtor); Viloyati Mukhtori Kuhistoni Badakhshon* (Khorugh), Viloyati Khatlon (Qurghonteppa), Viloyati Sughd (Khujand)
note: the administrative center name follows in parentheses
Definition Field Listing
9 September 1991 (from Soviet Union)
National holiday:
Definition Field Listing
Independence Day (or National Day), 9 September (1991)
Definition Field Listing
6 November 1994
Legal system:
Definition Field Listing
based on civil law system; no judicial review of legislative acts
Definition Field Listing
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
Definition Field Listing
chief of state: President Emomali RAHMONOV (since 6 November 1994; head of state and Supreme Assembly chairman since 19 November 1992)
head of government: Prime Minister Oqil OQILOV (since 20 January 1999)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president, approved by the Supreme Assembly
election results: Emomali RAHMONOV elected president; percent of vote - Emomali RAHMONOV 97%, Davlat USMON 2%
elections: president elected by popular vote for a seven-year term; election last held 6 November 1999 (next to be held NA 2006); prime minister appointed by the president
Legislative branch:
Definition Field Listing
bicameral Supreme Assembly or Majlisi Oli consists of the Assembly of Representatives (lower chamber) or Majlisi Namoyandagon (63 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms) and the National Assembly (upper chamber) or Majlisi Milliy (33 seats; members are indirectly elected, 25 selected by local deputies, 8 appointed by the president; all serve five-year terms)
election results: Assembly of Representatives - percent of vote by party - PDPT 65%, Communist Party 20%, Islamic Rebirth Party 7.5%, other 7.5%; seats by party - NA; National Assembly - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - NA
elections: last held 27 February and 12 March 2000 for the Assembly of Representatives (next to be held NA 2005) and 23 March 2000 for the National Assembly (next to be held NA 2005)
Judicial branch:
Definition Field Listing
Supreme Court (judges are appointed by the president)
Political parties and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
Congress of People's Unity of Tajikistan [Saiffidin TURAYEV]; Democratic Party or TDP [Mahmadruzi ISKANDAROV, chairman]; Islamic Rebirth Party [Muhammadsharif HIMMAT-ZODA, chairman]; Party of Justice and Development [Rahmatullo ZOIROV]; People's Democratic Party of Tajikistan or PDPT [Emomali RAHMONOV]; Socialist Party [leader NA]; Tajik Communist Party or CPT [Shodi SHABDOLOV]; Adolatho "Justice" Party [Abdurahmon KARIMOV, chairman]
Political pressure groups and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
there are three unregistered political parties with 1,000 or more members: Progressive Party [Suton QUVVATOV]; Social Democratic Party [Rahmatullo ZOIROV]; Unity Party [Hikmatuko SAIDOV]
International organization participation:
Definition Field Listing
Diplomatic representation in the US:
Definition Field Listing
Tajikistan does not have an embassy in the US, but does have a permanent mission to the UN: address - 136 East 67th Street, New York, NY 10021, telephone - [1] (212) 472-7645, FAX - [1] (212) 628-0252; permanent representative to the UN is Rashid ALIMOV
Diplomatic representation from the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Ambassador Franklin P. "Pancho" HUDDLE, Jr.
embassy: 10 Pavlova Street, Dushanbe, Tajikistan 734003; note - the embassy in Dushanbe is not yet fully operational; most business is still handled in Almaty at 531 Sayfullin Street, Almaty, Kazakhstan, telephone 7-3272-58-79-61, FAX 7-3272-58079-68
mailing address: use embassy street address
telephone: 992-372-21-03-48, 03-50, 03-52
FAX: 992-372-24-15-62
Flag description:
Definition Field Listing
three horizontal stripes of red (top), a wider stripe of white, and green; a gold crown surmounted by seven gold, five-pointed stars is located in the center of the white stripe
   Economy    Tajikistan
Economy - overview:
Definition Field Listing
Tajikistan has the lowest per capita GDP among the 15 former Soviet republics. Cotton is the most important crop. Mineral resources, varied but limited in amount, include silver, gold, uranium, and tungsten. Industry consists only of a large aluminum plant, hydropower facilities, and small obsolete factories mostly in light industry and food processing. The civil war (1992-97) severely damaged the already weak economic infrastructure and caused a sharp decline in industrial and agricultural production. Even though 80% of its people continue to live in abject poverty, Tajikistan has experienced strong economic growth since 1997. Continued privatization of medium and large state-owned enterprises will further increase productivity. Tajikistan's economic situation, however, remains fragile due to uneven implementation of structural reforms, weak governance, and the external debt burden. Servicing of the debt, owed principally to Russia and Uzbekistan, could require as much as 50% of government revenues in 2002, thus limiting the nation's ability to meet pressing development needs.
Definition Field Listing
purchasing power parity - $7.5 billion (2001 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
Definition Field Listing
8.3% (2001 est.)
GDP - per capita:
Definition Field Listing
purchasing power parity - $1,140 (2001 est.)
GDP - composition by sector:
Definition Field Listing
agriculture: 19%
industry: 25%
services: 56% (2000)
Population below poverty line:
Definition Field Listing
80% (2001 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
Definition Field Listing
lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
Definition Field Listing
33% (2001 est.)
Labor force:
Definition Field Listing
3.187 million (2000)
Labor force - by occupation:
Definition Field Listing
agriculture 67.2%, industry 7.5%, services 25.3% (2000 est.)
Unemployment rate:
Definition Field Listing
20% (2001 est.)
Definition Field Listing
revenues: $146 million
expenditures: $196 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (2000 est.)
Definition Field Listing
aluminum, zinc, lead, chemicals and fertilizers, cement, vegetable oil, metal-cutting machine tools, refrigerators and freezers
Industrial production growth rate:
Definition Field Listing
10.3% (2000 est.)
Electricity - production:
Definition Field Listing
14.245 billion kWh (2000)
Electricity - production by source:
Definition Field Listing
fossil fuel: 2%
hydro: 98%
other: 0% (2000)
nuclear: 0%
Electricity - consumption:
Definition Field Listing
12.539 billion kWh (2000)
Electricity - exports:
Definition Field Listing
3.909 billion kWh (2000)
Electricity - imports:
Definition Field Listing
3.2 billion kWh (2000)
Agriculture - products:
Definition Field Listing
cotton, grain, fruits, grapes, vegetables; cattle, sheep, goats
Definition Field Listing
$640 million (f.o.b., 2001 est.)
Exports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
aluminum, electricity, cotton, fruits, vegetable oil, textiles
Exports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
Europe 43%, Russia 30%, Uzbekistan 13% (2000)
Definition Field Listing
$700 million (f.o.b., 2001 est.)
Imports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
electricity, petroleum products, aluminum oxide, machinery and equipment, foodstuffs
Imports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
Uzbekistan 27%, Russia 16%, Europe 12% (2000)
Debt - external:
Definition Field Listing
$1.23 billion (2000 est.)
Economic aid - recipient:
Definition Field Listing
$60.7 million from US (2001)
Definition Field Listing
Currency code:
Definition Field Listing
Exchange rates:
Definition Field Listing
Tajikistani somoni per US dollar - 2.55 (January 2002), 2.2 (January 2001), 1550 (January 2000), 998 (January 1999), 350 (January 1997), 284 (January 1996)
note: the new unit of exchange was introduced on 30 October 2000, with one somoni equal to 1,000 of the old Tajikistani rubles
Fiscal year:
Definition Field Listing
calendar year
   Communications    Tajikistan
Telephones - main lines in use:
Definition Field Listing
363,000 (1997)
Telephones - mobile cellular:
Definition Field Listing
2,500 (1997)
Telephone system:
Definition Field Listing
general assessment: poorly developed and not well maintained; many towns are not reached by the national network
domestic: cable and microwave radio relay
international: linked by cable and microwave radio relay to other CIS republics and by leased connections to the Moscow international gateway switch; Dushanbe linked by Intelsat to international gateway switch in Ankara (Turkey); satellite earth stations - 1 Orbita and 2 Intelsat
Radio broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
AM 8, FM 7, shortwave 2 (2001)
Definition Field Listing
1.291 million (1991)
Television broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
13 (2001)
Definition Field Listing
820,000 (1997)
Internet country code:
Definition Field Listing
Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
Definition Field Listing
5 (2001)
Internet users:
Definition Field Listing
2,000 (2000)
   Transportation    Tajikistan
Definition Field Listing
total: 482 km
broad gauge: 482 km 1.520-m gauge
note: includes only lines in common carrier service; lines dedicated to particular industries are excluded (2001)
Definition Field Listing
total: 29,900 km
paved: 21,400 km (includes some all-weather gravel-surfaced roads)
unpaved: 8,500 km (these roads are made of unstabilized earth and are difficult to negotiate in wet weather) (1990)
Definition Field Listing
Definition Field Listing
natural gas 400 km (1992)
Ports and harbors:
Definition Field Listing
Definition Field Listing
53 (2001)
Airports - with paved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
under 914 m: 1 (2001)
Airports - with unpaved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 51
over 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
914 to 1,523 m: 12
under 914 m: 36 (2001)
   Military    Tajikistan
Military branches:
Definition Field Listing
Army, Air Force and Air Defense Force, Presidential National Guard, Security Forces (internal and border troops)
Military manpower - military age:
Definition Field Listing
18 years of age (2002 est.)
Military manpower - availability:
Definition Field Listing
males age 15-49: 1,646,278 (2002 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service:
Definition Field Listing
males age 15-49: 1,349,505 (2002 est.)
Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
Definition Field Listing
males: 72,056 (2002 est.)
Military expenditures - dollar figure:
Definition Field Listing
$35.4 million (FY01)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
Definition Field Listing
3.9% (FY01)
   Transnational Issues    Tajikistan
Disputes - international:
Definition Field Listing
the undemarcated northern and western border with Uzbekistan is mined in many sections; continues to maintain a territorial dispute with Kyrgyzstan in Isfara Valley area; ongoing talks with China have failed to resolve the longstanding dispute over the indefinite boundary; Kazakhstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan wrestle with sharing limited water resources and the regional environmental degradation caused by the shrinking of the Aral Sea
Illicit drugs:
Definition Field Listing
major transshipment zone for heroin and opiates from Afghanistan going to Russia and Western Europe; limited illicit cultivation of narcotics crops, mostly for domestic consumption

This page was last updated on 1 January 2002

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