Top banner
The World Factbook 2002

  Macedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic of  
Flag of Macedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic of
Click to enlarge
Categories Banner
  Transnational Issues

In general, information available as of 1 January 2002
was used in the preparation of The World Factbook 2002.

This page was last updated on 1 January 2002

Map of Macedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic of

Legend: Definition Definition Field Listing Field Listing
   Introduction    Macedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic of
Definition Field Listing
International recognition of The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia's (F.Y.R.O.M.) independence from Yugoslavia in 1991 was delayed by Greece's objection to the new state's use of what it considered a Hellenic name and symbols. Greece finally lifted its trade blockade in 1995, and the two countries agreed to normalize relations, despite continued disagreement over F.Y.R.O.M.'s use of "Macedonia." F.Y.R.O.M.'s large Albanian minority, an ethnic Albanian armed insurgency in F.Y.R.O.M. in 2001, and the status of neighboring Kosovo continue to be sources of ethnic tension.
   Geography    Macedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic of
Definition Field Listing
Southeastern Europe, north of Greece
Geographic coordinates:
Definition Field Listing
41 50 N, 22 00 E
Map references:
Definition Field Listing
Definition Field Listing
total: 25,333 sq km
water: 477 sq km
land: 24,856 sq km
Area - comparative:
Definition Field Listing
slightly larger than Vermont
Land boundaries:
Definition Field Listing
total: 766 km
border countries: Albania 151 km, Bulgaria 148 km, Greece 246 km, Yugoslavia 221 km
Definition Field Listing
0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims:
Definition Field Listing
none (landlocked)
Definition Field Listing
warm, dry summers and autumns and relatively cold winters with heavy snowfall
Definition Field Listing
mountainous territory covered with deep basins and valleys; three large lakes, each divided by a frontier line; country bisected by the Vardar River
Elevation extremes:
Definition Field Listing
lowest point: Vardar River 50 m
highest point: Golem Korab (Maja e Korabit) 2,753 m
Natural resources:
Definition Field Listing
chromium, lead, zinc, manganese, tungsten, nickel, low-grade iron ore, asbestos, sulfur, timber, arable land
Land use:
Definition Field Listing
arable land: 24%
permanent crops: 2%
other: 74% (1998 est.)
Irrigated land:
Definition Field Listing
550 sq km (1998 est.)
Natural hazards:
Definition Field Listing
high seismic risks
Environment - current issues:
Definition Field Listing
air pollution from metallurgical plants
Environment - international agreements:
Definition Field Listing
party to: Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - note:
Definition Field Listing
landlocked; major transportation corridor from Western and Central Europe to Aegean Sea and Southern Europe to Western Europe
   People    Macedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic of
Definition Field Listing
note: a Framework Agreement ratified by Macedonia on 16 November 2001 calls for a new census in 2002 (July 2002 est.)
Age structure:
Definition Field Listing
0-14 years: 22.4% (male 239,638; female 221,446)
15-64 years: 67.2% (male 694,368; female 686,450)
65 years and over: 10.4% (male 94,214; female 118,684) (2002 est.)
Population growth rate:
Definition Field Listing
0.41% (2002 est.)
Birth rate:
Definition Field Listing
13.35 births/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Death rate:
Definition Field Listing
7.74 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Net migration rate:
Definition Field Listing
-1.49 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Sex ratio:
Definition Field Listing
at birth: 1.08 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.08 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.79 male(s)/female
total population: 1 male(s)/female (2002 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
Definition Field Listing
12.54 deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
Definition Field Listing
total population: 74.26 years
female: 76.68 years (2002 est.)
male: 72.01 years
Total fertility rate:
Definition Field Listing
1.77 children born/woman (2002 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
Definition Field Listing
less than 0.01% (1999 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
Definition Field Listing
less than 100 (1999 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
Definition Field Listing
less than 100 (1999 est.)
Definition Field Listing
noun: Macedonian(s)
adjective: Macedonian
Ethnic groups:
Definition Field Listing
Macedonian 66.6%, Albanian 22.7%, Turkish 4%, Roma 2.2%, Serb 2.1%, other 2.4% (1994)
Definition Field Listing
Macedonian Orthodox 67%, Muslim 30%, other 3%
Definition Field Listing
Macedonian 70%, Albanian 21%, Turkish 3%, Serbo-Croatian 3%, other 3%
Definition Field Listing
definition: NA
total population: NA%
male: NA%
female: NA%
   Government    Macedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic of
Country name:
Definition Field Listing
conventional long form: The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia
conventional short form: none
local long form: Republika Makedonija
abbreviation: F.Y.R.O.M.
local short form: Makedonija
Government type:
Definition Field Listing
emerging democracy
Definition Field Listing
Administrative divisions:
Definition Field Listing
123 municipalities (opstini, singular - opstina); Aracinovo, Bac, Belcista, Berovo, Bistrica, Bitola, Blatec, Bogdanci, Bogomila, Bogovinje, Bosilovo, Brvenica, Cair (Skopje), Capari, Caska, Cegrane, Centar (Skopje), Centar Zupa, Cesinovo, Cucer-Sandevo, Debar, Delcevo, Delogozdi, Demir Hisar, Demir Kapija, Dobrusevo, Dolna Banjica, Dolneni, Dorce Petrov (Skopje), Drugovo, Dzepciste, Gazi Baba (Skopje), Gevgelija, Gostivar, Gradsko, Ilinden, Izvor, Jegunovce, Kamenjane, Karbinci, Karpos (Skopje), Kavadarci, Kicevo, Kisela Voda (Skopje), Klecevce, Kocani, Konce, Kondovo, Konopiste, Kosel, Kratovo, Kriva Palanka, Krivogastani, Krusevo, Kuklis, Kukurecani, Kumanovo, Labunista, Lipkovo, Lozovo, Lukovo, Makedonska Kamenica, Makedonski Brod, Mavrovi Anovi, Meseista, Miravci, Mogila, Murtino, Negotino, Negotino-Polosko, Novaci, Novo Selo, Oblesevo, Ohrid, Orasac, Orizari, Oslomej, Pehcevo, Petrovec, Plasnica, Podares, Prilep, Probistip, Radovis, Rankovce, Resen, Rosoman, Rostusa, Samokov, Saraj, Sipkovica, Sopiste, Sopotnica, Srbinovo, Star Dojran, Staravina, Staro Nagoricane, Stip, Struga, Strumica, Studenicani, Suto Orizari (Skopje), Sveti Nikole, Tearce, Tetovo, Topolcani, Valandovo, Vasilevo, Velesta, Veles, Vevcani, Vinica, Vitoliste, Vranestica, Vrapciste, Vratnica, Vrutok, Zajas, Zelenikovo, Zeleno, Zitose, Zletovo, Zrnovci
note: the seven municipalities followed by Skopje in parentheses collectively constitute "greater Skopje"
Definition Field Listing
17 September 1991 (from Yugoslavia)
National holiday:
Definition Field Listing
Uprising Day, 2 August (1903)
Definition Field Listing
adopted 17 November 1991, effective 20 November 1991
note: the Macedonian Parliament approved November 2001 a series of new constitutional amendments, strengthening minority rights
Legal system:
Definition Field Listing
based on civil law system; judicial review of legislative acts
Definition Field Listing
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
Definition Field Listing
chief of state: President Boris TRAJKOVSKI (since 15 December 1999)
head of government: Prime Minister Ljubco GEORGIEVSKI (since 30 November 1998)
elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term; election last held 14 November 1999 (next to be held NA October 2004); prime minister elected by the Assembly; election last held NA November 1998 (next to be held NA 2002)
election results: Boris TRAJKOVSKI elected president on second-round ballot; percent of vote - Boris TRAJKOVSKI 52.4%, Tito PETKOVSKI 46.2%
cabinet: Council of Ministers elected by the majority vote of all the deputies in the Assembly; note - current cabinet formed by the government coalition parties VMRO-DPMNE, PDP, and DPA
Legislative branch:
Definition Field Listing
unicameral Assembly or Sobranje (120 seats - 85 members are elected by popular vote, 35 members come from lists of candidates submitted by parties based on the percentage that a party gains from the overall vote; all serve four-year terms)
election results: percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - VMRO-DPMNE 43, SDSM 27, PDP 14, DA 13, DPA 11, VMRO-VMRO 6, LDP 4, SP 1, Roma Party 1
elections: last held 18 October and 1 November 1998 (next tentatively scheduled for June 2002)
Judicial branch:
Definition Field Listing
Supreme Court - Parliament appoints the judges; Constitutional Court - Parliament appoints the judges; Republican Judicial Council - Parliament appoints the judges
Political parties and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
Democratic Alternative or DA [Vasil TUPURKOVSKI, president]; Democratic Party of Albanians or DPA [Arben XHAFERI, president]; Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization-Democratic Party for Macedonian National Unity or VMRO-DPMNE [Ljubcho GEORGIEVSKI, president]; Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization-True Macedonian Reform Option or VMRO-VMRO [Boris STOJMANOV]; Liberal Democratic Party or LDP [Risto GUSTERVO]; Liberal Party [leader NA]; National Democratic Party or MPDK [Kastriot HAXHISEXHA]; Party for Democratic Prosperity or PDP [Imeri IMERI, president]; Social-Democratic Alliance of Macedonia or SDSM (former Communist Party) [Branko CRVENKOVSKI, president]; Socialist Party of Macedonia or SP [Ljubisav IVANOV, president]; Union of Romanies of Macedonia or SRM [leader NA]
Political pressure groups and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
International organization participation:
Definition Field Listing
Diplomatic representation in the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Ambassador Nikola DIMITROV
chancery: Suite 302, 1101 30th Street NW, Washington, DC 20007
consulate(s) general: New York
FAX: [1] (202) 337-3093
telephone: [1] (202) 337-3063
Diplomatic representation from the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Ambassador Larry BUTLER
embassy: Bul. Ilinden bb, 91000 Skopje
mailing address: American Embassy Skopje, Department of State, Washington, DC 20521-7120 (pouch)
telephone: [389] (02) 116-180
FAX: [389] (02) 213-767
Flag description:
Definition Field Listing
a rising yellow sun with eight rays extending to the edges of the red field
   Economy    Macedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic of
Economy - overview:
Definition Field Listing
At independence in November 1991, Macedonia was the least developed of the Yugoslav republics, producing a mere 5% of the total federal output of goods and services. The collapse of Yugoslavia ended transfer payments from the center and eliminated advantages from inclusion in a de facto free trade area. An absence of infrastructure, UN sanctions on Yugoslavia, one of its largest markets, and a Greek economic embargo over a dispute about the country's constitutional name and flag hindered economic growth until 1996. GDP subsequently rose each year through 2000. However, the leadership's commitment to economic reform, free trade, and regional integration was undermined by the ethnic Albanian insurgency of 2001. The economy shrank about 4% because of decreased trade, intermittent border closures, increased deficit spending on security needs, and investor uncertainty. The international community hopes to restart growth with a donors' conference in 2002.
Definition Field Listing
purchasing power parity - $9 billion (2001 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
Definition Field Listing
-4% (2001 est.)
GDP - per capita:
Definition Field Listing
purchasing power parity - $4,400 (2001 est.)
GDP - composition by sector:
Definition Field Listing
agriculture: 10%
industry: 32%
services: 58% (2001 est.)
Population below poverty line:
Definition Field Listing
24% (2001 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
Definition Field Listing
lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
Definition Field Listing
5.3% (2001 est.)
Labor force:
Definition Field Listing
1.1 million (2000 est.)
Labor force - by occupation:
Definition Field Listing
agriculture NA%, industry NA%, services NA%
Unemployment rate:
Definition Field Listing
39% (2001 est.)
Definition Field Listing
revenues: $850 million
expenditures: $950 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (2001 est.)
Definition Field Listing
coal, metallic chromium, lead, zinc, ferronickel, textiles, wood products, tobacco, food processing, buses
Industrial production growth rate:
Definition Field Listing
-8% (2001 est.)
Electricity - production:
Definition Field Listing
6.395 billion kWh (1999)
Electricity - production by source:
Definition Field Listing
fossil fuel: 82.25%
hydro: 17.75%
other: 0% (1999)
nuclear: 0%
Electricity - consumption:
Definition Field Listing
5.992 billion kWh (1999)
Electricity - exports:
Definition Field Listing
30 million kWh (1999)
Electricity - imports:
Definition Field Listing
75 million kWh (1999)
Agriculture - products:
Definition Field Listing
rice, tobacco, wheat, corn, millet, cotton, sesame, mulberry leaves, citrus, vegetables; beef, pork, poultry, mutton
Definition Field Listing
$1.2 billion (f.o.b., 2001 est.)
Exports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
food, beverages, tobacco; miscellaneous manufactures, iron and steel
Exports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
Yugoslavia 25%, Germany 19%, US 13%, Italy 7%, Greece 6% (2000)
Definition Field Listing
$1.5 billion (f.o.b., 2001 est.)
Imports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
machinery and equipment, chemicals, fuels; food products
Imports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
Germany 12%, Ukraine 10%, Greece 10%, Russia 9%, Yugoslavia 9% (2000)
Debt - external:
Definition Field Listing
$1.3 billion (2001 est.)
Economic aid - recipient:
Definition Field Listing
$150 million (2001 est.)
Definition Field Listing
Macedonian denar (MKD)
Currency code:
Definition Field Listing
Exchange rates:
Definition Field Listing
Macedonian denars per US dollar - 64.757 (January 2001), 65.904 (2000), 56.902 (1999), 54.462 (1998), 50.004 (1997)
Fiscal year:
Definition Field Listing
calendar year
   Communications    Macedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic of
Telephones - main lines in use:
Definition Field Listing
408,000 (1997)
Telephones - mobile cellular:
Definition Field Listing
12,362 (1997)
Telephone system:
Definition Field Listing
general assessment: NA
domestic: NA
international: NA
Radio broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
AM 29, FM 20, shortwave 0 (1998)
Definition Field Listing
410,000 (1997)
Television broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
31 (plus 166 repeaters) (1995)
Definition Field Listing
510,000 (1997)
Internet country code:
Definition Field Listing
Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
Definition Field Listing
6 (2000)
Internet users:
Definition Field Listing
100,000 (2001)
   Transportation    Macedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic of
Definition Field Listing
total: 699 km
standard gauge: 699 km 1.435-m gauge (233 km electrified)
note: a 56-km extension of the Kumanovo-Beljakovce line to the Bulgarian border at Gyueshevo is under construction (2001)
Definition Field Listing
total: 8,684 km
paved: 5,540 km (including 133 km of expressways)
unpaved: 3,144 km (1997)
Definition Field Listing
note: lake transport only, on the Greek and Albanian borders
Definition Field Listing
10 km
Ports and harbors:
Definition Field Listing
Definition Field Listing
17 (2001)
Airports - with paved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 10
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
under 914 m: 8 (2001)
Airports - with unpaved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 7
914 to 1,523 m: 3
under 914 m: 4 (2001)
   Military    Macedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic of
Military branches:
Definition Field Listing
Army (ARM), Air and Air Defense Forces, Police Force
Military manpower - military age:
Definition Field Listing
19 years of age (2002 est.)
Military manpower - availability:
Definition Field Listing
males age 15-49: 551,523 (2002 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service:
Definition Field Listing
males age 15-49: 444,575 (2002 est.)
Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
Definition Field Listing
males: 17,905 (2002 est.)
Military expenditures - dollar figure:
Definition Field Listing
$200 million (FY01/02 est.)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
Definition Field Listing
6% (FY01/02 est.)
   Transnational Issues    Macedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic of
Disputes - international:
Definition Field Listing
dispute with Greece over country's name persists; 2001 FYROM-Yugoslavia boundary delimitation agreement, which adjusts former republic boundaries, was signed and ratified and awaits demarcation; ethnic Albanians in Kosovo dispute legitimacy of the agreement, which cedes small tracts of Kosovo lands to FYROM
Illicit drugs:
Definition Field Listing
major transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin and hashish; minor transit point for South American cocaine destined for Europe

This page was last updated on 1 January 2002

Bottom Banner