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The World Factbook 2002

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  Transnational Issues

In general, information available as of 1 January 2002
was used in the preparation of The World Factbook 2002.

This page was last updated on 1 January 2002

Map of Hungary

Legend: Definition Definition Field Listing Field Listing
   Introduction    Hungary
Definition Field Listing
Hungary was part of the polyglot Austro-Hungarian Empire, which collapsed during World War I. The country fell under communist rule following World War II. In 1956, a revolt and announced withdrawal from the Warsaw Pact were met with a massive military intervention by Moscow. In the more open GORBACHEV years, Hungary led the movement to dissolve the Warsaw Pact and steadily shifted toward multiparty democracy and a market-oriented economy. Following the collapse of the USSR in 1991, Hungary developed close political and economic ties to Western Europe. It joined NATO in 1999 and is a frontrunner in a future expansion of the EU.
   Geography    Hungary
Definition Field Listing
Central Europe, northwest of Romania
Geographic coordinates:
Definition Field Listing
47 00 N, 20 00 E
Map references:
Definition Field Listing
Definition Field Listing
total: 93,030 sq km
water: 690 sq km
land: 92,340 sq km
Area - comparative:
Definition Field Listing
slightly smaller than Indiana
Land boundaries:
Definition Field Listing
total: 2,171 km
border countries: Austria 366 km, Croatia 329 km, Romania 443 km, Yugoslavia 151 km, Slovakia 677 km, Slovenia 102 km, Ukraine 103 km
Definition Field Listing
0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims:
Definition Field Listing
none (landlocked)
Definition Field Listing
temperate; cold, cloudy, humid winters; warm summers
Definition Field Listing
mostly flat to rolling plains; hills and low mountains on the Slovakian border
Elevation extremes:
Definition Field Listing
lowest point: Tisza River 78 m
highest point: Kekes 1,014 m
Natural resources:
Definition Field Listing
bauxite, coal, natural gas, fertile soils, arable land
Land use:
Definition Field Listing
arable land: 52%
other: 45% (1998 est.)
permanent crops: 3%
Irrigated land:
Definition Field Listing
2,100 sq km (1998 est.)
Environment - current issues:
Definition Field Listing
the approximation of Hungary's standards in waste management, energy efficiency, and air, soil, and water pollution with environmental requirements for EU accession will require large investments
Environment - international agreements:
Definition Field Listing
party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulphur 85, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Law of the Sea
Geography - note:
Definition Field Listing
landlocked; strategic location astride main land routes between Western Europe and Balkan Peninsula as well as between Ukraine and Mediterranean basin
   People    Hungary
Definition Field Listing
10,075,034 (July 2002 est.)
Age structure:
Definition Field Listing
0-14 years: 16.4% (male 847,081; female 802,340)
15-64 years: 68.8% (male 3,406,701; female 3,528,087)
65 years and over: 14.8% (male 544,956; female 945,869) (2002 est.)
Population growth rate:
Definition Field Listing
-0.3% (2002 est.)
Birth rate:
Definition Field Listing
9.34 births/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Death rate:
Definition Field Listing
13.09 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Net migration rate:
Definition Field Listing
0.76 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Sex ratio:
Definition Field Listing
at birth: 1.07 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.97 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.58 male(s)/female
total population: 0.91 male(s)/female (2002 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
Definition Field Listing
8.77 deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
Definition Field Listing
total population: 71.9 years
female: 76.55 years (2002 est.)
male: 67.55 years
Total fertility rate:
Definition Field Listing
1.25 children born/woman (2002 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
Definition Field Listing
0.05% (1999 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
Definition Field Listing
2,500 (1999 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
Definition Field Listing
less than 100 (1999 est.)
Definition Field Listing
noun: Hungarian(s)
adjective: Hungarian
Ethnic groups:
Definition Field Listing
Hungarian 89.9%, Roma 4%, German 2.6%, Serb 2%, Slovak 0.8%, Romanian 0.7%
Definition Field Listing
Roman Catholic 67.5%, Calvinist 20%, Lutheran 5%, atheist and other 7.5%
Definition Field Listing
Hungarian 98.2%, other 1.8%
Definition Field Listing
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 99%
male: 99%
female: 98% (1980 est.)
   Government    Hungary
Country name:
Definition Field Listing
conventional long form: Republic of Hungary
conventional short form: Hungary
local short form: Magyarorszag
local long form: Magyar Koztarsasag
Government type:
Definition Field Listing
parliamentary democracy
Definition Field Listing
Administrative divisions:
Definition Field Listing
19 counties (megyek, singular - megye), 20 urban counties* (singular - megyei varos), and 1 capital city** (fovaros); Bacs-Kiskun, Baranya, Bekes, Bekescsaba*, Borsod-Abauj-Zemplen, Budapest**, Csongrad, Debrecen*, Dunaujvaros*, Eger*, Fejer, Gyor*, Gyor-Moson-Sopron, Hajdu-Bihar, Heves, Hodmezovasarhely*, Jasz-Nagykun-Szolnok, Kaposvar*, Kecskemet*, Komarom-Esztergom, Miskolc*, Nagykanizsa*, Nograd, Nyiregyhaza*, Pecs*, Pest, Somogy, Sopron*, Szabolcs-Szatmar-Bereg, Szeged*, Szekesfehervar*, Szolnok*, Szombathely*, Tatabanya*, Tolna, Vas, Veszprem, Veszprem*, Zala, Zalaegerszeg*
Definition Field Listing
1001 (unification by King Stephen I)
National holiday:
Definition Field Listing
St. Stephen's Day, 20 August
Definition Field Listing
18 August 1949, effective 20 August 1949, revised 19 April 1972; 18 October 1989 revision ensured legal rights for individuals and constitutional checks on the authority of the prime minister and also established the principle of parliamentary oversight; 1997 amendment streamlined the judicial system
Legal system:
Definition Field Listing
rule of law based on Western model
Definition Field Listing
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
Definition Field Listing
chief of state: Ferenc MADL (since NA August 2000)
head of government: Prime Minister Peter MEDGYESSY (since 27 May 2002)
cabinet: Council of Ministers elected by the National Assembly on the recommendation of the president
elections: president elected by the National Assembly for a five-year term; election last held 6 June 2000 (next to be held by June 2005); prime minister elected by the National Assembly on the recommendation of the president
note: to be elected, the president must win two-thirds of legislative vote in the first two rounds or a simple majority in the third round
election results: Ferenc MADL elected president; percent of legislative vote - NA% (but by a simple majority in the third round of voting); Peter MEDGYESSY elected prime minister; percent of legislative vote - NA%
Legislative branch:
Definition Field Listing
unicameral National Assembly or Orszaggyules (386 seats; members are elected by popular vote under a system of proportional and direct representation to serve four-year terms)
election results: percent of vote by party (5% or more of the vote required for parliamentary representation in the first round) - FIDESZ/MDF 48.70%, MSZP 46.11%, SZDSZ 4.92%, other 0.27%; seats by party - FIDESZ/MDF 188, MSZP 178, SZDSZ 20
elections: last held 7 and 21 April 2002 (next to be held NA April 2006)
Judicial branch:
Definition Field Listing
Constitutional Court (judges are elected by the National Assembly for nine-year terms)
Political parties and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
Alliance of Free Democrats or SZDSZ [Gabor KUNCZE]; Christian Democratic People's Party or KDNP [Gyorgy GICZY, president]; Hungarian Civic Party or FIDESZ [Zoltan POKORNI]; Hungarian Democratic Forum or MDF [Ibolya DAVID]; Hungarian Democratic People's Party or MDNP [Erzsebet PUSZTAI, chairman]; Hungarian Justice and Life Party or MIEP [Istvan CSURKA, chairman]; Hungarian Socialist Party or MSZP [Laszlo KOVACS, chairman]; Hungarian Workers' Party or MMP [Gyula THURMER, chairman]; Independent Smallholders or FKGP [Jozsef TORGYAN, president]
Political pressure groups and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
International organization participation:
Definition Field Listing
Diplomatic representation in the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Ambassador Geza JESZENSZKY
chancery: 3910 Shoemaker Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
consulate(s) general: Los Angeles and New York
FAX: [1] (202) 966-8135
telephone: [1] (202) 362-6730
Diplomatic representation from the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Ambassador Nancy Goodman BRINKER
embassy: Szabadsag ter 12, H-1054 Budapest
mailing address: pouch: American Embassy Budapest, 5270 Budapest Place, Department of State, Washington, DC 20521-5270
telephone: [36] (1) 475-4336, 475-4156
FAX: [36] (1) 475-4520
Flag description:
Definition Field Listing
three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and green
   Economy    Hungary
Economy - overview:
Definition Field Listing
Hungary continues to demonstrate strong economic growth and to work toward accession to the European Union. The private sector accounts for over 80% of GDP. Foreign ownership of and investment in Hungarian firms is widespread, with cumulative foreign direct investment totaling more than $23 billion since 1989. Hungarian sovereign debt was upgraded in 2000 to the second-highest rating among all the Central European transition economies. Inflation and unemployment - both priority concerns in 2001 - have declined substantially. Economic reform measures such as health care reform, tax reform, and local government financing have not yet been addressed by the ORBAN government.
Definition Field Listing
purchasing power parity - $120.9 billion (2001 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
Definition Field Listing
3.9% (2001 est.)
GDP - per capita:
Definition Field Listing
purchasing power parity - $12,000 (2001 est.)
GDP - composition by sector:
Definition Field Listing
agriculture: 6%
industry: 34%
services: 60% (2000 est.)
Population below poverty line:
Definition Field Listing
8.6% (1993 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
Definition Field Listing
lowest 10%: 4.1%
highest 10%: 20.5% (1998)
Distribution of family income - Gini index:
Definition Field Listing
25.3 (1998)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
Definition Field Listing
9.2% (2001 est.)
Labor force:
Definition Field Listing
4.2 million (1997)
Labor force - by occupation:
Definition Field Listing
services 65%, industry 27%, agriculture 8% (1996)
Unemployment rate:
Definition Field Listing
6.5% (2001 est.)
Definition Field Listing
revenues: $13 billion
expenditures: $14.4 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (2000 est.)
Definition Field Listing
mining, metallurgy, construction materials, processed foods, textiles, chemicals (especially pharmaceuticals), motor vehicles
Industrial production growth rate:
Definition Field Listing
4.7% (2001 est.)
Electricity - production:
Definition Field Listing
33.436 billion kWh (2000)
Electricity - production by source:
Definition Field Listing
fossil fuel: 58.83%
hydro: 0.53%
other: 0.35% (2000)
nuclear: 40.29%
Electricity - consumption:
Definition Field Listing
35.095 billion kWh (2000)
Electricity - exports:
Definition Field Listing
1.2 billion kWh (2000)
Electricity - imports:
Definition Field Listing
5.2 billion kWh (2000)
Agriculture - products:
Definition Field Listing
wheat, corn, sunflower seed, potatoes, sugar beets; pigs, cattle, poultry, dairy products
Definition Field Listing
$27.9 billion (f.o.b., 2001)
Exports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
machinery and equipment 59.5%, other manufactures 29.4%, food products 6.9%, raw materials 2.4%, fuels and electricity 1.8% (2000)
Exports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
Germany 37%, Austria 9%, Italy 6%, Netherlands 5% (2000)
Definition Field Listing
$29.5 billion (f.o.b., 2001)
Imports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
machinery and equipment 51.1%, other manufactures 35.9%, fuels and electricity 8.1%, food products 2.8%, raw materials 2.1% (2000)
Imports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
Germany 25%, Russia 8%, Austria 7%, Italy 7% (2000)
Debt - external:
Definition Field Listing
$28.5 billion (2001)
Economic aid - recipient:
Definition Field Listing
$122.7 million (1995)
Definition Field Listing
forint (HUF)
Currency code:
Definition Field Listing
Exchange rates:
Definition Field Listing
forints per US dollar - 275.920 (January 2002), 286.490 (2001), 282.179 (2000), 237.146 (1999), 214.402 (1998), 186.789 (1997)
Fiscal year:
Definition Field Listing
calendar year
   Communications    Hungary
Telephones - main lines in use:
Definition Field Listing
3.095 million (1997)
Telephones - mobile cellular:
Definition Field Listing
1.269 million (July 1999)
Telephone system:
Definition Field Listing
general assessment: the telephone system has been modernized and is capable of satisfying all requests for telecommunication service
domestic: the system is digitalized and highly automated; trunk services are carried by fiber-optic cable and digital microwave radio relay; a program for fiber-optic subscriber connections was initiated in 1996; heavy use is made of mobile cellular telephones
international: Hungary has fiber-optic cable connections with all neighboring countries; the international switch is in Budapest; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean and Indian Ocean regions), 1 Inmarsat, 1 very small aperture terminal (VSAT) system of ground terminals
Radio broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
AM 17, FM 57, shortwave 3 (1998)
Definition Field Listing
7.01 million (1997)
Television broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
35 (plus 161 low-power repeaters) (1995)
Definition Field Listing
4.42 million (1997)
Internet country code:
Definition Field Listing
Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
Definition Field Listing
16 (2000)
Internet users:
Definition Field Listing
1.2 million (2001)
   Transportation    Hungary
Definition Field Listing
total: 7,869 km
broad gauge: 36 km 1.524-m gauge
narrow gauge: 219 km 0.760-m gauge
standard gauge: 7,614 km 1.435-m gauge (2,423 km electrified; 1,236 km double-tracked)
note: Hungary and Austria jointly manage the cross-border, standard-gauge railway connecting Gyor, Sopron, and Ebenfurt (Gysev railroad) which has a route length of about 101 km in Hungary and 65 km in Austria (2001)
Definition Field Listing
total: 188,203 km
paved: 81,680 km (including 448 km of expressways)
unpaved: 106,523 km (1998 est.)
Definition Field Listing
1,373 km (permanently navigable) (1997)
Definition Field Listing
crude oil 1,204 km; natural gas 4,387 km (1991)
Ports and harbors:
Definition Field Listing
Budapest, Dunaujvaros
Definition Field Listing
43 (2001)
Airports - with paved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 16
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 8
914 to 1,523 m: 1
under 914 m: 1 (2001)
1,524 to 2,437 m: 4
Airports - with unpaved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 27
2,438 to 3,047 m: 3
1,524 to 2,437 m: 4
under 914 m: 8 (2001)
914 to 1,523 m: 12
Definition Field Listing
5 (2001)
   Military    Hungary
Military branches:
Definition Field Listing
Ground Forces, Air Forces
Military manpower - military age:
Definition Field Listing
18 years of age (2002 est.)
Military manpower - availability:
Definition Field Listing
males age 15-49: 2,559,260 (2002 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service:
Definition Field Listing
males age 15-49: 2,039,710 (2002 est.)
Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
Definition Field Listing
males: 64,121 (2002 est.)
Military expenditures - dollar figure:
Definition Field Listing
$1.08 billion (2002 est.)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
Definition Field Listing
1.75% (2002 est.)
   Transnational Issues    Hungary
Disputes - international:
Definition Field Listing
Slovakia requested additional ICJ judgment in 1998 and talks continue to set modalities to assure Hungarian compliance with 1997 ICJ decision to proceed with construction of Gabcikovo-Nagymaros Dam, abandoned by Hungary in 1989; Hungary opposes Croatian plan to build a hydropower dam on the boundary stream Drava
Illicit drugs:
Definition Field Listing
transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin and cannabis and for South American cocaine destined for Western Europe; limited producer of precursor chemicals, particularly for amphetamine and methamphetamine

This page was last updated on 1 January 2002

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