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  Transnational Issues

In general, information available as of 1 January, 2004
was used in the preparation of The World Factbook.

This page was last updated on 10 February, 2005

Map of Turkey

Legend: DefinitionDefinition Field ListingField Listing Rank OrderRank Order
   Introduction    Turkey
Definition Field Listing
Modern Turkey was founded in 1923 from the Anatolian remnants of the defeated Ottoman Empire by national hero Mustafa KEMAL, who was later honored with the title Ataturk, or "Father of the Turks." Under his authoritarian leadership, the country adopted wide-ranging social, legal, and political reforms. After a period of one-party rule, an experiment with multi-party politics led to the 1950 election victory of the opposition Democratic Party and the peaceful transfer of power. Since then, Turkish political parties have multiplied, but democracy has been fractured by periods of instability and intermittent military coups (1960, 1971, 1980), which in each case eventually resulted in a return of political power to civilians. In 1997, the military again helped engineer the ouster - popularly dubbed a "post-modern coup" - of the then Islamic-oriented government. Turkey intervened militarily on Cyprus in 1974 to prevent a Greek takeover of the island and has since acted as patron state to the "Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus," which only Turkey recognizes. A separatist insurgency begun in 1984 by the Kurdistan Workers' Party (PKK) - now known as the People's Congress of Kurdistan or Kongra-Gel (KGK) - has dominated the Turkish military's attention and claimed more than 30,000 lives, but after the capture of the group's leader in 1999, the insurgents largely withdrew from Turkey, mainly to northern Iraq. In 2004, KGK announced an end to its ceasefire and attacks attributed to the KGK increased. Turkey joined the UN in 1945 and in 1952 it became a member of NATO. In 1964, Turkey became an associate member of the European Community; over the past decade, it has undertaken many reforms to strengthen its democracy and economy, enabling it to begin accession membership talks with the European Union.
   Geography    Turkey
Definition Field Listing
southeastern Europe and southwestern Asia (that portion of Turkey west of the Bosporus is geographically part of Europe), bordering the Black Sea, between Bulgaria and Georgia, and bordering the Aegean Sea and the Mediterranean Sea, between Greece and Syria
Geographic coordinates:
Definition Field Listing
39 00 N, 35 00 E
Map references:
Definition Field Listing
Middle East
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 780,580 sq km
land: 770,760 sq km
water: 9,820 sq km
Area - comparative:
Definition Field Listing
slightly larger than Texas
Land boundaries:
Definition Field Listing
total: 2,648 km
border countries: Armenia 268 km, Azerbaijan 9 km, Bulgaria 240 km, Georgia 252 km, Greece 206 km, Iran 499 km, Iraq 352 km, Syria 822 km
Definition Field Listing
7,200 km
Maritime claims:
Definition Field Listing
territorial sea: 6 nm in the Aegean Sea; 12 nm in Black Sea and in Mediterranean Sea
exclusive economic zone: in Black Sea only: to the maritime boundary agreed upon with the former USSR
Definition Field Listing
temperate; hot, dry summers with mild, wet winters; harsher in interior
Definition Field Listing
high central plateau (Anatolia); narrow coastal plain; several mountain ranges
Elevation extremes:
Definition Field Listing
lowest point: Mediterranean Sea 0 m
highest point: Mount Ararat 5,166 m
Natural resources:
Definition Field Listing
coal, iron ore, copper, chromium, antimony, mercury, gold, barite, borate, celestite (strontium), emery, feldspar, limestone, magnesite, marble, perlite, pumice, pyrites (sulfur), clay, arable land, hydropower
Land use:
Definition Field Listing
arable land: 30.93%
permanent crops: 3.31%
other: 65.76% (2001)
Irrigated land:
Definition Field Listing
42,000 sq km (1998 est.)
Natural hazards:
Definition Field Listing
very severe earthquakes, especially in northern Turkey, along an arc extending from the Sea of Marmara to Lake Van
Environment - current issues:
Definition Field Listing
water pollution from dumping of chemicals and detergents; air pollution, particularly in urban areas; deforestation; concern for oil spills from increasing Bosporus ship traffic
Environment - international agreements:
Definition Field Listing
party to: Air Pollution, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Environmental Modification
Geography - note:
Definition Field Listing
strategic location controlling the Turkish Straits (Bosporus, Sea of Marmara, Dardanelles) that link Black and Aegean Seas; Mount Ararat, the legendary landing place of Noah's Ark, is in the far eastern portion of the country
   People    Turkey
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
68,893,918 (July 2004 est.)
Age structure:
Definition Field Listing
0-14 years: 26.6% (male 9,328,108; female 8,990,742)
15-64 years: 66.8% (male 23,394,465; female 22,650,532)
65 years and over: 6.6% (male 2,078,881; female 2,451,190) (2004 est.)
Median age:
Definition Field Listing
total: 27.3 years
male: 27.1 years
female: 27.5 years (2004 est.)
Population growth rate:
Definition Field Listing
1.13% (2004 est.)
Birth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
17.22 births/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Death rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
5.95 deaths/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Net migration rate:
Definition Field Listing
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Sex ratio:
Definition Field Listing
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.85 male(s)/female
total population: 1.02 male(s)/female (2004 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 42.62 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 46.3 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 38.76 deaths/1,000 live births (2004 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total population: 72.08 years
male: 69.68 years
female: 74.61 years (2004 est.)
Total fertility rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
1.98 children born/woman (2004 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
less than 0.1% - note: no country specific models provided (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
Definition Field Listing
noun: Turk(s)
adjective: Turkish
Ethnic groups:
Definition Field Listing
Turkish 80%, Kurdish 20% (estimated)
Definition Field Listing
Muslim 99.8% (mostly Sunni), other 0.2% (mostly Christians and Jews)
Definition Field Listing
Turkish (official), Kurdish, Arabic, Armenian, Greek
Definition Field Listing
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 86.5%
male: 94.3%
female: 78.7% (2003 est.)
   Government    Turkey
Country name:
Definition Field Listing
conventional long form: Republic of Turkey
conventional short form: Turkey
local long form: Turkiye Cumhuriyeti
local short form: Turkiye
Government type:
Definition Field Listing
republican parliamentary democracy
Definition Field Listing
Administrative divisions:
Definition Field Listing
81 provinces (iller, singular - il); Adana, Adiyaman, Afyonkarahisar, Agri, Aksaray, Amasya, Ankara, Antalya, Ardahan, Artvin, Aydin, Balikesir, Bartin, Batman, Bayburt, Bilecik, Bingol, Bitlis, Bolu, Burdur, Bursa, Canakkale, Cankiri, Corum, Denizli, Diyarbakir, Duzce, Edirne, Elazig, Erzincan, Erzurum, Eskisehir, Gaziantep, Giresun, Gumushane, Hakkari, Hatay, Igdir, Isparta, Istanbul, Izmir, Kahramanmaras, Karabuk, Karaman, Kars, Kastamonu, Kayseri, Kilis, Kirikkale, Kirklareli, Kirsehir, Kocaeli, Konya, Kutahya, Malatya, Manisa, Mardin, Mersin, Mugla, Mus, Nevsehir, Nigde, Ordu, Osmaniye, Rize, Sakarya, Samsun, Sanliurfa, Siirt, Sinop, Sirnak, Sivas, Tekirdag, Tokat, Trabzon, Tunceli, Usak, Van, Yalova, Yozgat, Zonguldak
Definition Field Listing
29 October 1923 (successor state to the Ottoman Empire)
National holiday:
Definition Field Listing
Republic Day, 29 October (1923)
Definition Field Listing
7 November 1982
Legal system:
Definition Field Listing
civil law system derived from various European continental legal systems; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations; note - member of the European Court of Human Rights (ECHR), although Turkey claims limited derogations on the ratified European Convention on Human Rights
Definition Field Listing
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
Definition Field Listing
chief of state: President Ahmet Necdet SEZER (since 16 May 2000)
head of government: Prime Minister Recep Tayyip ERDOGAN (14 March 2003)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president on the nomination of the prime minister
elections: president elected by the National Assembly for a seven-year term; election last held 5 May 2000 (next to be held NA May 2007); prime minister appointed by the president from among members of parliament
election results: Ahmed Necdet SEZER elected president on the third ballot; percent of National Assembly vote - 60%
note: president must have a two-thirds majority of the National Assembly on the first two ballots and a simple majority on the third ballot
Legislative branch:
Definition Field Listing
unicameral Grand National Assembly of Turkey or Turkiye Buyuk Millet Meclisi (550 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)
elections: last held 3 November 2002 (next to be held NA 2007); note - a special rerun of the General Election in the province of Siirt on 9 March 2003 resulted in the election of Recep Tayyip ERDOGAN to a seat in parliament, a prerequisite for becoming prime minister on 14 March 2003
election results: percent of vote by party - AKP 34.3%, CHP 19.4%, DYP 9.6%, MHP 8.3%, ANAP 5.1%, DSP 1.1%, and others; seats by party - AKP 363, CHP 178, independents 9; note - parties surpassing the 10% threshold are entitled to parliamentary seats; seats by party as of 1 December 2004 - AKP 368, CHP 171, DYP 4, LDP 1, independents 5, vacant 1
Judicial branch:
Definition Field Listing
Constitutional Court; High Court of Appeals (Yargitay); Council of State (Danistay); Court of Accounts (Sayistay); Military High Court of Appeals; Military High Administrative Court
Political parties and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
Democratic Left Party or DSP [Mehmet Zeki SEZER]; Democratic People's Party or DEHAP [Tuncer BAKIRHAN]; Justice and Development Party or AKP [Recep Tayip ERDOGAN]; Liberal Democratic Party or LDP [Emin SIRIN]; Motherland Party or ANAP [leader NA]; Nationalist Action Party or MHP [Devlet BAHCELI]; Republican People's Party or CHP (includes the New Turkey Party) [Deniz BAYKAL]; Felicity Party (sometimes translated as Contentment Party) or SP [Necmettin ERBEKAN]; Social Democratic People's Party or SHP [Murat KARAYALCIN]; True Path Party (sometimes translated as Correct Way Party) or DYP [Mehmet AGAR]
note: the parties listed above are some of the more significant of the 49 parties that Turkey had on 1 December 2004
Political pressure groups and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
Confederation of Public Sector Unions or KESK [Sami EVREN]; Confederation of Revolutionary Workers Unions or DISK [Suleyman CELEBI]; Independent Industrialists' and Businessmen's Association or MUSIAD [Omer BOLAT]; Moral Rights Workers Union or Hak-Is [Salim USLU]; Turkish Industrialists' and Businessmen's Association or TUSIAD [Omer SABANCI]; Turkish Confederation of Employers' Unions or TISK [Refik BAYDUR]; Turkish Confederation of Labor or Turk-Is [Salih KILIC]; Turkish Confederation of Tradesmen and Craftsmen or TESK [Dervis GUNDAY]; Turkish Union of Chambers of Commerce and Commodity Exchanges or TOBB [M. Rifat HISARCIKLIOGLU]
International organization participation:
Definition Field Listing
Diplomatic representation in the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Ambassador Dr. Osman Faruk LOGOGLU
chancery: 2525 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 612-6700
FAX: [1] (202) 612-6744
consulate(s) general: Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, and New York
Diplomatic representation from the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Ambassador Eric S. EDELMAN
embassy: 110 Ataturk Boulevard, Kavaklidere, 06100 Ankara
mailing address: PSC 93, Box 5000, APO AE 09823
telephone: [90] (312) 455-5555
FAX: [90] (312) 467-0019
consulate(s) general: Istanbul
consulate(s): Adana; note - there is a Consular Agent in Izmir
Flag description:
Definition Field Listing
red with a vertical white crescent (the closed portion is toward the hoist side) and white five-pointed star centered just outside the crescent opening
   Economy    Turkey
Economy - overview:
Definition Field Listing
Turkey's dynamic economy is a complex mix of modern industry and commerce along with a traditional agriculture sector that in 2001 still accounted for 40% of employment. It has a strong and rapidly growing private sector, yet the state still plays a major role in basic industry, banking, transport, and communication. The largest industrial sector is textiles and clothing, which accounts for one-third of industrial employment; it faces stiff competition in international markets with the end of the global quota system. However, other sectors, notably the automotive and electonics industries, are rising in importance within Turkey's export mix. In recent years the economic situation has been marked by erratic economic growth and serious imbalances. Real GNP growth has exceeded 6% in many years, but this strong expansion has been interrupted by sharp declines in output in 1994, 1999, and 2001. Meanwhile, the public sector fiscal deficit has regularly exceeded 10% of GDP - due in large part to the huge burden of interest payments, which accounted for more than 40% of central government spending in 2003. Inflation, in recent years in the high double-digit range, fell to 11.3% in 2004. Perhaps because of these problems, foreign direct investment in Turkey remains low - less than $1 billion annually. Results in 2002-04 improved, because of strong financial support from the IMF and tighter fiscal policy. A major political and economic issue over the next decade is whether or not Turkey will become a member of the EU.
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
purchasing power parity - $458.2 billion (2003 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
5.8% (2003 est.)
GDP - per capita:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
purchasing power parity - $6,700 (2003 est.)
GDP - composition by sector:
Definition Field Listing
agriculture: 11.7%
industry: 29.8%
services: 58.5% (2003 est.)
Investment (gross fixed):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
15.5% of GDP (2003)
Population below poverty line:
Definition Field Listing
18% (2001)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
Definition Field Listing
lowest 10%: 2.3%
highest 10%: 32.3% (1994)
Distribution of family income - Gini index:
Definition Field Listing
44 (2002)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
25.3% (2003 est.)
Labor force:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
23.79 million
note: about 1.2 million Turks work abroad (2003)
Labor force - by occupation:
Definition Field Listing
agriculture 39.7%, industry 22.4%, services 37.9% (3rd quarter, 2001)
Unemployment rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
10.5% (plus underemployment of 6.1%) (2003 est.)
Definition Field Listing
revenues: $66.79 billion
expenditures: $93.31 billion, including capital expenditures of NA (2003)
Public debt:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
78.7% of GDP (2003)
Agriculture - products:
Definition Field Listing
tobacco, cotton, grain, olives, sugar beets, pulse, citrus; livestock
Definition Field Listing
textiles, food processing, autos, mining (coal, chromite, copper, boron), steel, petroleum, construction, lumber, paper
Industrial production growth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
8.5% (2003 est.)
Electricity - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
116.6 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
112.6 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - exports:
Definition Field Listing
433 million kWh (2001)
Electricity - imports:
Definition Field Listing
4.579 billion kWh (2001)
Oil - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
48,000 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Oil - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
619,500 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Oil - exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
46,110 bbl/day (2001)
Oil - imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
616,500 bbl/day (2001)
Oil - proved reserves:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
288.4 million bbl (1 January 2002)
Natural gas - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
312 million cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
15.94 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
0 cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
15.75 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
8.685 billion cu m (1 January 2002)
Current account balance:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$-6.806 billion (2003)
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$49.12 billion f.o.b. (2003 est.)
Exports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
apparel, foodstuffs, textiles, metal manufactures, transport equipment
Exports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
Germany 15.8%, US 8%, UK 7.8%, Italy 6.8%, France 6% (2003)
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$62.43 billion f.o.b. (2003 est.)
Imports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
machinery, chemicals, semi-finished goods, fuels, transport equipment
Imports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
Germany 13.6%, Italy 7.9%, Russia 7.8%, France 6%, UK 5%, US 5%, Switzerland 4.3% (2003)
Reserves of foreign exchange & gold:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$35.55 billion (2003)
Debt - external:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$147.3 billion (2003)
Economic aid - recipient:
Definition Field Listing
ODA, $300 million (2000)
Definition Field Listing
Turkish lira (TRL)
Currency code:
Definition Field Listing
Exchange rates:
Definition Field Listing
Turkish liras per US dollar - NA (2003), 1,507,230 (2002), 1,225,590 (2001), 625,218 (2000), 418,783 (1999), 151,865 (1997)
Fiscal year:
Definition Field Listing
calendar year
   Communications    Turkey
Telephones - main lines in use:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
18,916,700 (2003)
Telephones - mobile cellular:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
27,887,500 (2003)
Telephone system:
Definition Field Listing
general assessment: undergoing rapid modernization and expansion, especially with cellular telephones
domestic: additional digital exchanges are permitting a rapid increase in subscribers; the construction of a network of technologically advanced intercity trunk lines, using both fiber-optic cable and digital microwave radio relay is facilitating communication between urban centers; remote areas are reached by a domestic satellite system; the number of subscribers to mobile cellular telephone service is growing rapidly
international: country code - 90; international service is provided by three submarine fiber-optic cables in the Mediterranean and Black Seas, linking Turkey with Italy, Greece, Israel, Bulgaria, Romania, and Russia; also by 12 Intelsat earth stations, and by 328 mobile satellite terminals in the Inmarsat and Eutelsat systems (2002)
Radio broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
AM 16, FM 107, shortwave 6 (2001)
Television broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
635 (plus 2,934 repeaters) (1995)
Internet country code:
Definition Field Listing
Internet hosts:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
355,215 (2004)
Internet users:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
5.5 million (2003)
   Transportation    Turkey
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 8,671 km
standard gauge: 8,671 km 1.435-m gauge (2,122 km electrified) (2003)
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 385,960 km
paved: 131,226 km (including 1,749 km of expressways)
unpaved: 254,734 km (1999)
Definition Field Listing
1,200 km (2003)
Definition Field Listing
gas 3,177 km; oil 3,562 km (2004)
Ports and harbors:
Definition Field Listing
Gemlik, Hopa, Iskenderun, Istanbul, Izmir, Kocaeli (Izmit), Icel (Mersin), Samsun, Trabzon
Merchant marine:
Definition Field Listing
total: 508 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 4,666,895 GRT/7,311,504 DWT
by type: bulk 111, cargo 229, chemical tanker 46, combination bulk 1, combination ore/oil 2, container 34, liquefied gas 6, passenger 1, passenger/cargo 1, petroleum tanker 36, refrigerated cargo 4, roll on/roll off 26, short-sea/passenger 8, specialized tanker 3
foreign-owned: Belize 1, Cambodia 1, China 1, Cyprus 4, Greece 1, Italy 3, Liberia 1, Monaco 1, Switzerland 1, Thailand 1, United Kingdom 9
registered in other countries: 243 (2004 est.)
Definition Field Listing
120 (2003 est.)
Airports - with paved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 87
over 3,047 m: 16
2,438 to 3,047 m: 30
1,524 to 2,437 m: 20
914 to 1,523 m: 17
under 914 m: 4 (2004 est.)
Airports - with unpaved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 32
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
914 to 1,523 m: 8
under 914 m: 20 (2004 est.)
Definition Field Listing
14 (2003 est.)
   Military    Turkey
Military branches:
Definition Field Listing
Turkish Armed Forces (TSK): Land Forces, Naval Forces Command (includes Naval Air and Naval Infantry), Air Force, Coast Guard Command, Gendarmerie (Jandarma)
Military manpower - military age and obligation:
Definition Field Listing
20 years of age (2004 est.)
Military manpower - availability:
Definition Field Listing
males age 15-49: 19,828,702 (2004 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service:
Definition Field Listing
males age 15-49: 11,965,262 (2004 est.)
Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
Definition Field Listing
males: 680,673 (2004 est.)
Military expenditures - dollar figure:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$12.155 billion (2003)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
5.3% (2003)
   Transnational Issues    Turkey
Disputes - international:
Definition Field Listing
complex maritime, air, and territorial disputes with Greece in the Aegean Sea; Cyprus question remains with Greece; Syria and Iraq protest Turkish hydrological projects to control upper Euphrates waters; Turkey has expressed concern over the status of Kurds in Iraq; border with Armenia remains closed over Nagorno-Karabakh
Refugees and internally displaced persons:
Definition Field Listing
IDPs: 350,000-1,000,000 (fighting from 1984-1999 between Kurdish PKK and Turkish military; most IDPs in southeastern provinces) (2004)
Illicit drugs:
Definition Field Listing
key transit route for Southwest Asian heroin to Western Europe and - to a far lesser extent the US - via air, land, and sea routes; major Turkish, Iranian, and other international trafficking organizations operate out of Istanbul; laboratories to convert imported morphine base into heroin are in remote regions of Turkey as well as near Istanbul; government maintains strict controls over areas of legal opium poppy cultivation and output of poppy straw concentrate

This page was last updated on 10 February, 2005

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