Country List | World Factbook Home
CIA Seal  World Factbook Seal Senegal Flag of Senegal
Map of Senegal
Introduction Senegal
Independent from France in 1960, Senegal joined with The Gambia to form the nominal confederation of Senegambia in 1982. However, the envisaged integration of the two countries was never carried out, and the union was dissolved in 1989. Despite peace talks, a southern separatist group sporadically has clashed with government forces since 1982. Senegal has a long history of participating in international peacekeeping.
Geography Senegal
Western Africa, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean, between Guinea-Bissau and Mauritania
Geographic coordinates:
14 00 N, 14 00 W
Map references:
total: 196,190 sq km
land: 192,000 sq km
water: 4,190 sq km
Area - comparative:
slightly smaller than South Dakota
Land boundaries:
total: 2,640 km
border countries: The Gambia 740 km, Guinea 330 km, Guinea-Bissau 338 km, Mali 419 km, Mauritania 813 km
531 km
Maritime claims:
contiguous zone: 24 NM
territorial sea: 12 NM
continental shelf: 200 NM or to the edge of the continental margin
exclusive economic zone: 200 NM
tropical; hot, humid; rainy season (May to November) has strong southeast winds; dry season (December to April) dominated by hot, dry, harmattan wind
generally low, rolling, plains rising to foothills in southeast
Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: unnamed feature near Nepen Diakha 581 m
Natural resources:
fish, phosphates, iron ore
Land use:
arable land: 12%
permanent crops: 0%
other: 88% (1998 est.)
Irrigated land:
710 sq km (1998 est.)
Natural hazards:
lowlands seasonally flooded; periodic droughts
Environment - current issues:
wildlife populations threatened by poaching; deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion; desertification; overfishing
Environment - international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: Marine Dumping
Geography - note:
westernmost country on the African continent; The Gambia is almost an enclave of Senegal
People Senegal
10,589,571 (July 2002 est.)
Age structure:
0-14 years: 43.5% (male 2,321,789; female 2,290,105)
15-64 years: 53.4% (male 2,710,178; female 2,943,554)
65 years and over: 3.1% (male 159,445; female 164,500) (2002 est.)
Population growth rate:
2.91% (2002 est.)
Birth rate:
36.99 births/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Death rate:
8.14 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Net migration rate:
0.21 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.92 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.97 male(s)/female
total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (2002 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
55.41 deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 62.93 years
female: 64.61 years (2002 est.)
male: 61.29 years
Total fertility rate:
5.03 children born/woman (2002 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
1.4% (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
95,000 (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
10,000 (2001 est.)
noun: Senegalese (singular and plural)
adjective: Senegalese
Ethnic groups:
Wolof 43.3%, Pular 23.8%, Serer 14.7%, Jola 3.7%, Mandinka 3%, Soninke 1.1%, European and Lebanese 1%, other 9.4%
Muslim 94%, indigenous beliefs 1%, Christian 5% (mostly Roman Catholic)
French (official), Wolof, Pulaar, Jola, Mandinka
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 39.1%
male: 51.1%
female: 28.9% (2001 est.)
Government Senegal
Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Senegal
conventional short form: Senegal
local short form: Senegal
local long form: Republique du Senegal
Government type:
republic under multiparty democratic rule
Administrative divisions:
10 regions (regions, singular - region); Dakar, Diourbel, Fatick, Kaolack, Kolda, Louga, Saint-Louis, Tambacounda, Thies, Ziguinchor
note: there may be another region called Matam
4 April 1960 (from France); complete independence was achieved upon dissolution of federation with Mali on 20 August 1960
National holiday:
Independence Day, 4 April (1960)
a new constitution was adopted 7 January 2001
Legal system:
based on French civil law system; judicial review of legislative acts in Constitutional Court; the Council of State audits the government's accounting office; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
chief of state: President Abdoulaye WADE (since 1 April 2000)
head of government: Prime Minister Madior BOYE (since 3 March 2001)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the prime minister in consultation with the president
election results: Abdoulaye WADE elected president; percent of vote in the second round of voting - Abdoulaye WADE (PDS) 58.49%, Abdou DIOUF (PS) 41.51%
elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term under new constitution; election last held 27 February and 19 March 2000 (next to be held 27 February 2005); prime minister appointed by the president
Legislative branch:
unicameral National Assembly or Assemblee Nationale (120 seats; members are elected by direct, popular vote to serve five-year terms)
elections: last held 29 April 2001 (next to be held NA 2006)
election results: percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - SOPI Coalition 89, AFP 11, PS 10, other 10
note: the former National Assembly, dissolved in the spring of 2001, had 140 seats
Judicial branch:
Constitutional Court; Council of State; Court of Final Appeals or Cour de Cassation; Court of Appeals; note-the judicial system was reformed in 1992
Political parties and leaders:
African Party for Democracy and Socialism or And Jef (also known as PADS/AJ) [Landing SAVANE, secretary general]; African Party of Independence [Majhemout DIOP]; Alliance of Forces of Progress or AFP [Moustapha NIASSE]; Democratic and Patriotic Convention or CDP (also known as Garab-Gi) [Dr. Iba Der THIAM]; Democratic League-Labor Party Movement or LD-MPT [Dr. Abdoulaye BATHILY]; Front for Socialism and Democracy or FSD [Cheikh Abdoulaye DIEYE]; Gainde Centrist Bloc or BGC [Jean-Paul DIAS]; Independence and Labor Party or PIT [Amath DANSOKHO]; National Democratic Rally or RND [Madier DIOUF]; Senegalese Democratic Party or PDS [Abdoulaye WADE]; Socialist Party or PS [Ousmane Tanor DIENG]; SOPI Coalition (a coalition led by the PDS) [Abdoulaye WADE]; Union for Democratic Renewal or URD [Djibo Leyti KA]; other small parties
Political pressure groups and leaders:
labor; Muslim brotherhoods; students; teachers
International organization participation:
Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Mamadou Mansour SECK
FAX: [1] (202) 332-6315
consulate(s) general: New York
telephone: [1] (202) 234-0540
chancery: 2112 Wyoming Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Harriet L. ELAM-THOMAS
embassy: Avenue Jean XXIII at the corner of Rue Kleber, Dakar
mailing address: B. P. 49, Dakar
telephone: [221] 823-4296, 823-7384
FAX: [221] 822-2991
Flag description:
three equal vertical bands of green (hoist side), yellow, and red with a small green five-pointed star centered in the yellow band; uses the popular pan-African colors of Ethiopia
Economy Senegal
Economy - overview:
In January 1994, Senegal undertook a bold and ambitious economic reform program with the support of the international donor community. This reform began with a 50% devaluation of Senegal's currency, the CFA franc, which is linked at a fixed rate to the French franc. Government price controls and subsidies have been steadily dismantled. After seeing its economy contract by 2.1% in 1993, Senegal made an important turnaround, thanks to the reform program, with real growth in GDP averaging 5% annually during 1995-2001. Annual inflation had been pushed down to less than 1%, but rose to an estimated 3.3% in 2001. Investment rose steadily from 13.8% of GDP in 1993 to 16.5% in 1997. As a member of the West African Economic and Monetary Union (WAEMU), Senegal is working toward greater regional integration with a unified external tariff. Senegal also realized full Internet connectivity in 1996, creating a miniboom in information technology-based services. Private activity now accounts for 82% of GDP. On the negative side, Senegal faces deep-seated urban problems of chronic unemployment, trade union militancy, juvenile delinquency, and drug addiction.
purchasing power parity - $16.2 billion (2001 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
5.7% (2001 est.)
GDP - per capita:
purchasing power parity - $1,580 (2001 est.)
GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 18.5%
industry: 20.7%
services: 60.8% (2000 est.)
Population below poverty line:
54% (2001 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: 1.4%
highest 10%: 42.8% (1991)
Distribution of family income - Gini index:
41.3 (1995)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
3.3% (2001 est.)
Labor force:
Labor force - by occupation:
agriculture 70%
Unemployment rate:
48% (urban youth 40%) (2001 est.)
revenues: $1.373 billion
expenditures: $1.373 billion, including capital expenditures of $357 million (2002 est.)
agricultural and fish processing, phosphate mining, fertilizer production, petroleum refining, construction materials
Industrial production growth rate:
5.2% (2000 est.)
Electricity - production:
1.32 billion kWh (2000)
Electricity - production by source:
fossil fuel: 100%
hydro: 0%
other: 0% (2000)
nuclear: 0%
Electricity - consumption:
1.228 billion kWh (2000)
Electricity - exports:
0 kWh (2000)
Electricity - imports:
0 kWh (2000)
Agriculture - products:
peanuts, millet, corn, sorghum, rice, cotton, tomatoes, green vegetables; cattle, poultry, pigs; fish
$1 billion (f.o.b., 2001)
Exports - commodities:
fish, groundnuts (peanuts), petroleum products, phosphates, cotton
Exports - partners:
France 19%, Italy 12%, Spain 6%, Cote d'Ivoire 2% (2000)
$1.3 billion (f.o.b., 2001)
Imports - commodities:
foods and beverages, consumer goods, capital goods, petroleum products
Imports - partners:
France 27%, Nigeria 19%, Germany 4%, US 4%, Italy 3% (2000)
Debt - external:
$3.1 billion (2002 est.)
Economic aid - recipient:
$362.6 million (2002 est.)
Communaute Financiere Africaine franc (XOF); note - responsible authority is the Central Bank of the West African States
Currency code:
Exchange rates:
Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (XOF) per US dollar - 742.79 (January 2002), 733.04 (2001), 711.98 (2000), 615.70 (1999), 589.95 (1998), 583.67 (1997); note - from 1 January 1999, the XOF is pegged to the euro at a rate of 655.957 XOF per euro
Fiscal year:
calendar year
Communications Senegal
Telephones - main lines in use:
234,916 (2001)
Telephones - mobile cellular:
373,965 (2001)
Telephone system:
general assessment: good system
domestic: above-average urban system; microwave radio relay, coaxial cable and fiber-optic cable in trunk system
international: 4 submarine cables; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)
Radio broadcast stations:
AM 10, FM 14, shortwave 0 (1998)
1.24 million (1997)
Television broadcast stations:
1 (1997)
361,000 (1997)
Internet country code:
Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
15 (2002)
Internet users:
40,000 (2001)
Transportation Senegal
total: 906 km
narrow gauge: 906 km 1.000-meter gauge (70 km double-tracked) (2001)
total: 14,576 km
paved: 4,271 km
unpaved: 10,305 km (1996)
897 km
note: 785 km on the Senegal river, and 112 km on the Saloum river
Ports and harbors:
Dakar, Kaolack, Matam, Podor, Richard Toll, Saint-Louis, Ziguinchor
20 (2001)
Airports - with paved runways:
total: 9
over 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 6
914 to 1,523 m: 2 (2001)
Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 11
1,524 to 2,437 m: 6
914 to 1,523 m: 4
under 914 m: 1 (2001)
Military Senegal
Military branches:
Army, Navy, Air Force, National Gendarmerie, National Police (Surete Nationale)
Military manpower - military age:
18 years of age (2002 est.)
Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 2,406,337 (2002 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service:
males age 15-49: 1,257,423 (2002 est.)
Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males: 114,189 (2002 est.)
Military expenditures - dollar figure:
$68.6 million (FY02)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
1.4% (FY02)
Transnational Issues Senegal
Disputes - international:
Senegalese separatists disrupt legal border trade with smuggling, cattle rustling, and other illegal activities in Guinea-Bissau
Illicit drugs:
transshipment point for Southwest and Southeast Asian heroin moving to Europe and North America; illicit cultivator of cannabis

This page was last updated on 1 January 2002